Ozone (O3), discovered in 1840 by the Austrian chemist Christian Schönbein, is a 3-atom molecule and the chemical cousin of O2. It is gaseous at room temperature and has a unique and distinctive odor. 90% of the O3 in the atmosphere is found in the stratosphere and 10% of it is in the troposphere layer. While it is produced in the stratosphere layer with the effect of ultraviolet radiation, it is also eliminated. This process occurs at different frequencies of ultraviolet radiation.
Ozone gas is toxic to living beings, especially lungs and eyes are more sensitive to the toxic effect of ozone because of their low antioxidant capacity. Ozone sensitivity is correlated with the gas concentration in the ambient [ppm - part per million], ambient temperature, humidity (ozone is more active in humid environment) and the duration of exposure.
Ozone, besides being a shield against radiation for humans, is used for food&sterilization industry and veterinary field where it poses the hazard of serious health problems with direct exposure to the lungs.
For this reason it was depicted as the Roman God Janus (a two-faced Roman God, with faces looking in opposite directions).
Medical Ozone Gas Composition:
Medical Ozone gas (5% O3 - 95% O2) is used for treatment of certain diseases. This kind of ozone is derived from high voltage difference of pure oxygen in special generators. Only 3% to 5% of this gas from the generator consists of ozone, while the rest is oxygen.
Medical liquids in which we can solve ozone:
- Blood serum
- 0.9% NaCl
- Vegetable Oil (ideally olive oil)
O3 is soluble in these liquids and its dissolution depends on the temperature, pressure, pH and ion concentration. When O3 is introduced to the body, it is no longer in gas form, so there is no longer any OZONE GAS in the body.
Free Radical Theory:
Free radicals are reactive substances that can initiate various pathological processes, take role in intermediate steps or appear at the end of these processes. They may also occur during some physiological processes such as those of aerobic respiration. Ozone is capable of producing a strong oxidation, therefore, it acts as bactericide, virucide and fungucide.
Formation of Ozonoids:
Due to the unstability of O3, it reacts with other atomic molecules and is converted into O2 and OX (OZONOID) molecules which are more stable. OX (OZONOID) molecules are then transformed into ROS (Free oxygen derivatives) and LOP (Lipid peroxidation derivatives) which permits ozone gas to act on the cells.